Internet Of Things
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data. Each thing is uniquely identifiable through its embedded computing system but is able to inter-operate within the existing Internet infrastructure.
The IoT allows objects to be sensed or controlled remotely across existing network infrastructure, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, and resulting in improved efficiency, accuracy and economic benefit in addition to reduced human intervention. When IoT is augmented with sensors and actuators, the technology becomes an instance of the more general class of cyber-physical systems, which also encompasses technologies such as smart grids, virtual power plants, smart homes, intelligent transportation and smart cities.
"Things", in the IoT sense, can refer to a wide variety of devices such as heart monitoring implants, biochip transponders
on farm animals, cameras streaming live feeds of wild animals in coastal waters, automobiles with built-in sensors, DNA analysis devices for
environmental/food/pathogen monitoring, or field operation devices that assist firefighters in search and rescue operations.
Legal scholars suggest regarding "things" as an "inextricable mixture of hardware, software, data and service".These devices collect useful data with the help of various existing technologies and then autonomously flow the data between other devices.
The applications for internet connected devices are extensive. Multiple categorizations have been suggested, most of which
agree on a separation between consumer, enterprise (business), and infrastructure applications.
The ability to network embedded devices with limited CPU, memory and power resources means that IoT finds applications in nearly every field. Such systems could be in charge of collecting information in settings ranging from natural ecosystems to buildings and factories, thereby finding applications in fields of environmental sensing and urban planning.
Intelligent shopping systems, for example, could monitor specific users' purchasing habits in a store by tracking their specific mobile phones. These users could then be provided with special offers on their favorite products, or even location of items that they need, which their fridge has automatically conveyed to the phone. Additional examples of sensing and actuating are reflected in applications that deal with heat, water, electricity and energy management, as well as cruise-assisting transportation systems. Other applications that the Internet of things can provide is enabling extended home security features and home automation. The concept of an "Internet of living things" has been proposed to describe networks of biological sensors that could use cloud-based analyses to allow users to study DNA or other molecules.
A growing portion of IoT devices are created for consumer use. Examples of consumer applications include connected car, entertainment, home automation (also known as smart home devices), wearable technology, quantified self, connected health, and appliances such as washer/dryers, robotic vacuums, air purifiers, ovens, or refrigerators/freezers that use Wi-Fi for remote monitoring. Consumer IoT provides new opportunities for user experience and interfaces.
IoT devices are a part of the larger concept of home automation, also known as domotics. Large smart home systems utilize a main hub
or controller to provide users with a central control for all of their devices. These devices can include lighting, heating and air conditioning, media
and security systems. Ease of usability is the most immediate benefit to connecting these functionalities. Long term benefits can include the ability
to create a more environmentally friendly home by automating some functions such as ensuring lights and electronics are turned off. One of the major
obstacles to obtaining smart home technology is the high initial cost.
A second application of smart home is even more sophisticated. One can guide his or her connected device at home even from far away. If one for example leaves the office, it is possible to tell a connected air conditioner device via smart phone to cool down the house to a certain temperature.
Disabled and elderly people
One key application of smart home is to provide assistance for disabled and elderly individuals. These home systems utilize assistive
technology to accommodate an owner's specific disabilities. Voice control can assist users with sight and mobility limitations while alert systems
can be connected directly to Cochlear implants worn by hearing impaired users.
They can also be equipped with additional safety features. These features can include sensors that monitor for medical emergencies such as falls or seizures. Smart home technology applied in this way can provide users with more freedom and a higher quality of life.
Monitoring and controlling operations of urban and rural infrastructures like bridges, railway tracks, on- and offshore- wind-farms
is a key application of the IoT. The IoT infrastructure can be used for monitoring any events or changes in structural conditions that can compromise
safety and increase risk. It can also be used for scheduling repair and maintenance activities in an efficient manner, by coordinating tasks between
different service providers and users of these facilities.
IoT devices can also be used to control critical infrastructure like bridges to provide access to ships. Usage of IoT devices for monitoring and operating infrastructure is likely to improve incident management and emergency response coordination, and quality of service, up-times and reduce costs of operation in all infrastructure related areas. Even areas such as waste management can benefit from automation and optimization that could be brought in by the IoT.